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(It seems that the great library survived a fire set in Alexandria in 47 , characterized by the allegorical interpretation, by faith in the accuracy of Homer’s geography, and by grammatical rigour typical of the Stoic school.Under Stoic influence the Pergamenes tended to stress the element of anomaly in grammar, while the Alexandrians stressed the element of analogy; that is, the Alexandrians insisted on the natural, inherent orderliness of grammar, while the Pergamenes approached the subject as empiricists, being content to organize observations of actual usage into a body of knowledge.Prominent on the pagan side was the Neoplatonist Porphyry ( 305).Besides his published attacks on Christianity, he wrote commentaries on Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Plotinus.At that time much learned work was still being done, but it was becoming increasingly mechanical and repetitive.
From the 2nd century on, Church Fathers such as Justin, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen used an impressive knowledge of pagan literature to debate with pagan philosophers on equal terms.
The school of Aristotle, known as the ) wrote one book on Archilochus and Homer and another on the dates of Homer and Hesiod.
Clearchus collected proverbs, and Demetrius of Phaleron fables.
In continental Europe the field is known as “classical philology,” but the use, in some circles, of “philology” to denote the study of language and literature—the result of abbreviating the 19th-century “comparative philology”—has lent an unfortunate ambiguity to the term.
During the 19th century, Germans evolved the concept of (“science of antiquity”) to emphasize the unity of the various disciplines of which the study of the ancient world consists.
), the sixth librarian, wrote not only monographs about poetry but also important commentaries on Homer, Pindar, and much of tragedy and comedy.